Procurement Cycle: 4. Purchase Order Processing (part 2)




In the previous article, I have explained SAP PO Header Data in details. In this article, I will explain SAP PO Item data in details.
Purchasing Document Item
The item of a purchasing document describes the material or service ordered. The RFQ, contract, scheduling agreement, and PO document item information are stored in the EKPO table. There are more than 200 fields in the EKPO table. Some of them are relevant to PO and some are not (such as “Target quantity” that only relevant to contract and scheduling agreement).
In standard SAP ERP, some important purchasing document item data that relevant to a PO are:
  • MANDT – Client: the highest organizational unit in SAP in which the PO exists.
  • EBELN – Purchasing document number: the identifier of the PO. It must be unique in a client.
  • EBELP – Item Number of Purchasing Document. One PO can have one or more items. This field is the key to identify a certain item in a PO. The combination of EBELP, EBELN and MANDT is the primary key of EKPO table.
    The default item number interval in a purchasing document is defined in purchasing document type configuration. In standard SAP ERP system, the item number interval is 10. It means if we create a PO item without filling the “Item Number of PO” field (on ME21N screen), the “Item Number of Purchasing Document” of the first PO item will be 10, the second one’s will be 20, the third one’s will be 30, and soon.
    If you want to insert an additional item between the first and the second item, you can just create it on the last record/row, then fill this field with the value that lies between 10 and 20, such as 15. When you hit “enter” the new item will be placed in the second row (between item 10 and 20).
  • LOEKZ – Deletion indicator in purchasing document. This field will be filled automatically by SAP with:
    • “S”, if we block the PO item (with ME22N t-code) by selecting the PO item and go to “Edit” -> “block” menu, or pressing the “block” button. A blocked PO item can’t be processed to the subsequent function (Goods Receipt/GR or Invoice Receipt/IR). We can block a PO item that has not been GR or IR yet. By doing so we can’t perform the GR and IR. We can also block PO that has been GR but not been IR yet. By doing so we can’t perform IR.
      If the PO item is then allowed to the subsequent function, we must unblock the PO item by selecting it and press “unblock/undelete” button.
    • “L”, if we delete the PO item (with ME22N t-code) by selecting the PO item and go to “Edit” -> “delete” menu, or pressing the “delete” icon. When we delete a PO item, it’s not deleted from SAP database. SAP only fills the LOEKZ field of the PO item with “L” value.
      We can delete a PO item only if one of the below conditions is satisfied:

      • There is no subsequent function (GR and IR) that has been performed yet. So, it means that we want to cancel the PO item.
      • The item PO has been closed (has been GR, IR, and paid). By doing so, we can archive the PO.

      We can undelete the PO item by selecting it and press “unblock/undelete” button.

  • KNTTP – Account Assignment Category.
    It specifies whether accounting for an item is to be effected via an auxiliary account (such as a cost center, asset, etc). You can read my post about K (cost center) account assignment category and A (Asset) account assignment category.
  • PSTYP – Item category
    It determines the field selection and whether any additional data screens are shown. In addition, it determines whether a goods receipt or invoice receipt is to follow.
  • MATNR – Material number
    The material number requested. If the PR item has a material number, SAP ERP will copy the material master data into the PR so we don’t have to fill it manually, such as Unit of Measurement, Purchasing Group, Short text (material description), Material Group, etc.
  • TXZ01 – Short text
    The description of material/service requested.
  • WERKS – Plant
    It defines plant in which the material/service is requested.
  • LGORT – Storage location
    It defines storage location in which the material/service is requested.
  • AFNAM – Name of Requisitioner
    It indicates for whom the material or external service shown in the purchase requisition is to be ordered.
  • MENGE – Purchase Order Quantity.
    The quantity of material/service ordered in “order unit” of the PO item. The quantity is used as reference in GR and IR transaction.
  • MEINS – Order Unit: the unit of measure in which the material or service is ordered.
  • BPRME – Order Price Unit: the unit of measurement to which the PO item price relates.
    The Order Price Unit can be different with the Order Unit.
    For example: In a PO we order 2000 pairs (PAI as the order unit) material A. The order price of material A is 5 USD per 4 meter squares (M2 as the order price unit). Then we need to input the conversion factor between the “order unit” and “the order price unit”. Let say, for this example, the conversion is 1 PAI = 3 M2.
  • LMEIN – Base unit of measure: the unit of measure in which the stocks of the material are managed in Inventory Management. It’s the same as the Stock Keeping Unit (SKU). In GR transaction, SAP converts all quantities that in other units into the base unit. We define the conversion factor between the base unit and the order unit in the material master data. In the previous example, let say the base unit is pieces (PC), where 1 PAI = 2 PC.
  • BPUMZ – Numerator for conversion of order price unit into order unit. In the previous example, the BPUMZ is 3 (from 1 PAI = 3 M2).
  • BPUMN – Denominator for conv. of order price unit into order unit. In the previous example, the BPUMN is 1 (from 1 PAI = 3 M2).
  • UMREZ – Numerator for Conversion of Order Unit to Base Unit. In the previous example, the UMREZ is 2 (from 1 PAI = 2 PC).
  • UMREN – Denominator for Conversion of Order Unit to Base Unit. In the previous example, the UMREN is 1 (from 1 PAI = 2 PC).
  • NETPR – Net price in purchasing document (in document currency). In the previous example, the NETPR is 5 (from the order price is 5 USD per 4 meter squares).
  • PEINH – Price unit: specifies how many units of the purchase order price unit the price is valid for. In the previous example, the PEINH is 4 (from the order price is 5 USD per 4 meter squares).
  • BRTWR – Gross order value in PO currency (excluding discount and surcharge).
    BRTWR = (MENGE) x (BPUMZ/BPUMN) x (NETPR/PEINH). In the previous example BRTWR = (2000) x (3/1) x (5/4) = 7,500.
  • NETWR – Net order value in PO currency (including discount and surcharge). In the previous example NETWR = BRTWR because there is no discount nor surcharge.
    The unit price in base unit (stock keeping unit) is:
    (BPUMZ/BPUMN) x (NETPR/PEINH) x (UMREN/UMREZ).
    In the previous example the unit price in base unit is = (3/1) x (5/4) x (1/2) = 1.875 USD. So, if we GR 1 PAI (2 PC) of the material A, our inventory account will increase as 2 x 1.875 = 3.75 USD.
  • INFNR – Number of purchasing info record to which the PO item refers.
  • ANFNR – RFQ number to which PO item refers.
  • ANFPS – Item number of RFQ to which PO item refers.
  • BANFN – Purchase requisition number to which PO item refers.
  • BNFPO – Item number of purchase requisition to which PO item refers.
  • KONNR – Number of principal purchase agreement to which PO item refers.
  • KTPNR – Item number of principal purchase agreement to which PO item refers.
Other tables of Purchasing Document data
Besides EKKO and EKPO tables, SAP also stores some purchasing document data on other tables, such as:
  • EKET: table for purchasing document Delivery schedule.
  • EKKN: table for purchasing document account assignment.
  • EKPA: table for purchasing document partner functions.

8 thoughts on “Procurement Cycle: 4. Purchase Order Processing (part 2)

  1. very good articles, i am waiting for your next articles regarding procurement process, still left to cover the remaining four steps those are:
    5.PO Monitoring
    6.Goods Receipt
    7.Invoice Verification
    8.Payment Processing

  2. a Very useful site, I have a question regarding Deletion Indicator S (block) . Hopefully you are allowed to answer it, I need to find out who blocked a line item on a a PO, is there anywhere I can find a log for this change to the PO ? I have checked tables CDHDR and CDPOS but its not in there.
    I would appreciate any help.
    Regards, Chris

  3. Is there a way to check the validity of the RFQ Binding Period during PO creation? If the Binding Period has expired, PO cannot be saved.

  4. Hi, precisely became aware of your blog through Google, and discovered that must be extremely useful. I am likely to be cautious for brussels. I should be delighted if you happen to go on this in the future. A lot of persons is perhaps benefited from your posting. All the best!

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